- Feralia, a day in late October when the Romans traditionally commemorated the passing of the dead.
- Pomona's Day of Honoring, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona is the apple and the incorporation of this celebration into Samhain probably explains the tradition of "bobbing" for apples that is practiced today on Halloween.
- Stingy Jack and the Devil enter a pub to have a drink. Jack convinces the
Devil to turn himself into a coin to pay for the drinks. But instead of using
the coin, Jack slipped it into his pocket and next to a silver cross. The cross
prevented the Devil from changing back into his original form. But Jack
eventually freed the Devil, under the condition that he would not bother Jack
for one year. And if Jack should die during that year, the Devil would not claim
his soul. And the Devil agreed to these terms.
- Jack again tricked the Devil. This time, the Devil climbed into a tree to pick a piece of fruit. While he was up in the tree, Jack carved a sign of the cross into the tree's bark so that the Devil could not come down. Once again, Jacked struck a bargain with the Devil. He would free the Devil from the tree if he promised not to bother Jack for ten more years. And if Jack died during those years, the Devil would not claim his soul. And the Devil again agreed to these terms.
- Not long after this, Jack did indeed died. But because of his trickery, God would not allow him into heaven. In keeping his word not to take his soul, the Devil also would not allow Jack into hell. Instead, the Devil sent Jack out into the darkness of the world between worlds with nothing but a burning piece of coal. Jack placed the coal into a carved out turnip and has been roaming the Earth ever since. The Irish began to refer to Jack's ghostly figure as "Jack of the Lantern," and then, simply as "Jack O'Lantern."
- Natural History periodical - October 1983 p43-44
- Pagan Celtic Britain by Anne Ross
- Celtic Mythology by McCane
- The Druids and Their Heritage by Ward Rutherford
- The Black Arts by Richard Cavendish
- Human Sacrifice by Lewis Spencer
- The History and Origins of Druidism by Lewis Spencer
This article was written by http://www.paganspath.com/magik/samhain-history.htm